Social justice and the Indian Democracy: Vision of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar

[Vol 3/Issue 1/ April 2017]

[ISSN 2394-9295]

Academic Coordinator
Amity Law School, Noida
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Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar is recognized as staunch protagonist of Democracy. The term democracy is derived from the Greek words ‘demos’ and ‘Kartos’, the former meaning the people and the later power.[1] He defines democracy as “a form and a method of Government whereby revolutionary changes in the economic and social life of the people are brought about without bloodshed”. He further defined Democracy as, “democracy is a mode of associated living. The roots of Democracy are to be searched in social relationship, in terms of associated life between the people who form the society.

Dr. Ambedkar stated that caste was the origin of undemocratic structure and it was obstacle in accomplishment of Democracy. His thought of democracy was certainly on theory of equality. According to him, “where equality is denied everything else may be taken to be denied”. Political affairs are the key of all emancipation. Therefore he suggested unprivileged classes to capture political power for recognition of Social democracy in factual character. He sought Social democracy to relish in India. He stated in particularly Political Democracy cannot succeed unless until it’s based on Social democracy. He was of view that political Democracy must revolutionize its form to social Democracy in organized to enhance state socialism.

The concept of social justice, like law, revolutionizes and develops itself into gradually new patterns and enlarges its frontiers and presumes new proportions. Social justice has implication in the framework of Indian society which is estranged into Castes and Communities and they create blockade of exclusiveness on the basis of superiority and inferiority such inequality pose grave menace to Indian democracy. The concept of social justice takes within purpose of removing inequalities and affording equal opportunities to all citizens in social, economic and political affairs. Recent trends in Globalization, Urbanization, Mobilization of the poor in search of better life conditions and social justice movements compel us to think afresh.

Social justice is of the concept of distributive justice to the wealth, assets, privileges and advantages that accumulate within a society or state because the essence of justice is the attainment of the common goods as distinguished from the goods of individuals even of the majority. Social justice engrosses the conception of just and fair social order just and fair to one and all. In this sense, Social justice is a revolutionary ideal. It includes both the economic justice and social justice.


“Democracy is not merely a form of Government. It is primarily a mode of associated living, of conjoint communicated experience. It is essentially an attitude of respect and reverence towards our fellow men.”

“In short justice is another name of liberty, equality and fraternity.”

― Dr. B.R. Ambedkar

Brief Life Sketch about Dr B R Ambedkar

Dr B R Ambedkar, popularly known as Babasaheb Ambedkar, was well known as one of the architects of the Indian Constitution. He was a well-known politician and an. His efforts to eradicate the social evils like untouchablity and caste restrictions were remarkable. The leader, throughout his life, fought for the rights of the dalits and other socially backward classes. Ambedkar was appointed as the nation’s first Law Minister in the Cabinet of Jawaharlal Nehru. He was posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna, India’s highest civilian honor in 1990.

His Life: Dr. Ambedkar was born to Bhimabai Sakpal and Ramji on 14 April 1891 in Madhya Pradesh. He was the 14th child of his parents. He was a victim of caste discrimination. Fearing social outcry, the teachers would segregate the students of lower class from that of Brahmins and other upper classes. The untouchable students were often asked by the teacher to sit outside the class. After coming back from the US, he was appointed as the Defence secretary to the King of Baroda. Even, there also he had to face the humiliation for being an ‘Untouchable’.

Dalit Movement

After returning to India, he decided to fight against the caste discrimination that almost fragmented the nation. He opined that there should be separate electoral system for the Untouchables and lower caste people. He also favored the concept of providing reservations for Dalits and other religious communities.

Framer of Constitution

Dr. Ambedkar was appointed as the chairman of the constitution drafting committee. He was also a noted scholar and eminent jurist. He emphasized on the construction of a virtual bridge between the classes of the society. According to him, it would be difficult to maintain the unity of the country if the difference among the classes were not met.

Conversion to Buddhism

In 1950, Dr. Ambedkar traveled to Sri Lanka to attend a convention of Buddhist scholars and monks. In 1955 his book “The Buddha and His Dhamma” was published posthumously. He completed his final manuscript, “The Buddha or Karl Marx” on December 2, 1956. Since 1954-55 he was suffering from serious health problems including diabetes and weak eyesight. On 6 December, 1956 he died at his home in Delhi.


  1. To trace the impact & significance of Dr. B R Ambedkar’s philosophy so as to social justice in Indian Society.
  2. To trace the reasons and effects of recent trends in societal organization.
  3. To suggest potential suggestions and recommendation for social democracy in India.


This study basically follows doctrinal research method in the compilation, organization, interpretation and systematization of the primary and secondary source material. The approach of the study is descriptive and analytical. The data collected, organized and systematized from the secondary data resources. We have collected the data from different websites and also websites of Indian government.


This topic being so extensive relating to almost every strata of the humankind and every societal aspect, it would be too unmanageable to study each and every factor related to it. However every study has its limitations. Similarly, all the very basic concepts and reasons are not described and discussed in detail. For this purpose only prominent reasons of study have been analyzed to sort out the areas in which potential suggestions and reforms for social democracy in India.

Brief History: Social Structure

In order to explore the existence of Dalits in Indian history and philosophy, one needs to understand the circumstances that lead to the genesis of the concept of slavery. The condition of depressed class since ancient times was worst than animals in India as they were completely deprived of the basic rights and facilities in the social system[2].

“Varna”, is the term for the four broad castes into which traditional Hindu society is divided: the Brahmins who were priests, teachers, preachers; the Kshatriyas who were kings, governors, warriors, soldiers; the “Vaishyas who were cattle herders, agriculturists, artisans, businessmen, merchants; the Shudras who were labourers and service providers and performed functions of serving the other three varna. This quadruple division is the ancient division of society into principal castes. The much finer caste system in India based on occupation emerged in the medieval period[3]. However the fundamental concept of discrimination remained the same. Dalits were exploited and convinced that in the eyes of God, they were born as Dalits due to their bad karma. Dalit status was associated with occupations regarded as ritually impure, such as, leatherwork, butchering or removal of rubbish, animal carcasses and human waste. Dalits worked as manual labourers cleaning streets, latrines and sewers. These activities were considered to be polluting to the individuals and this pollution was considered contagious. Hence, Dalits were physically segregated from the society and were required to stay outside villages. They could not enter a temple or a school, they were not allowed to draw water out of the community well, they could not come in the way of upper caste people and other castes took elaborate precautions to prevent incidental contact with Dalits as it was believed that merely touching them would lead to loss of sanctity; hence known as untouchables. Unlike the other three upper castes, Shudras were completely deprived of their fundamental rights. India was ruled by numerous rulers but no regime could wipe out this social evil. Many social reformers emerged from time to time and influenced the society with their preaching’s and efforts in the direction of overall social upliftment.

Since the ancient times, Dalits were deprived of all kinds of social, religious and political rights. They were kept as slaves of the upper classes. But after centuries, now, social, religious and political awareness and awakening has taken place and the credit goes to Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar. The modern age education has brought revolutionary changes.

Dr. Ambedkar argued that the Brahmins were dominated Hindu society who was said that the fundamental principles of Brahminism are

  • Graded inequality between the different classes.
  • Complete disarmament the Shudras and the untouchables.
  • Complete prohibitions of education of the Shudras and the untouchables.
  • Ban on the Shudras and the untouchables occupying places of power and authority.
  • Complete subjugation and suppression of women.

After India attained independence, Dalits also got the constitutional rights to live. Hence they want to use their constitutional rights for the progress and upliftment of Dalit community.

To liberate Dalits from traditional slavery was the prime objective of Dr. Ambedkar’s life, philosophy, and work, something he would never hide. Hence Dr. Ambedkar considered the liberation of Dalits more important than the struggle for independence. He said that if ever his interests clashed with the interests of Dalits, he would give priority to the interests of Dalits[4].

Social rights can only be promoted if dignity of all the human beings is accepted in social life. Nobody should be considered superior or inferior based on gender, colour, caste, religion, region etc. Everyone should receive equal opportunities for education and progress and all human beings together should be able to avail the means and resources related to literature, art, culture, technology etc.

Dr. Ambedkar emphasized on creating social, economical and political awareness amongst the depressed class as they will not be able to defend their rights due to lack of awareness.

Dr. Ambedkar came from a humble background and had to struggle for his livelihood. Despite the struggle, he gave more importance to his goal of eradicating the adversities and injustice that prevailed in the society. As Dalits were the most distressed; to liberate them from their sufferings became his prime objective.

The concept of basic human needs involves drawing a list of foundational needs of both, physiological and social. It arrives at a list of the minimum social needs- right to food, housing, health, education and livelihood provide foundation upon which human development can occur and human freedom can flourish. These basic social rights should be conceptualized in terms of an entitlement both to be equal as humans and to be equal as members of the society. Naom

Chomsky once said,” In this terminal phase of human existence, democracy and equality are more than just ideals to be valued, they may be essential to survive.”

Ambedkar’s exhumation of ‘Society’ in India:

Dr. Ambedkar held that there were two qualitatively different groups which had not only been historically central, but continued to be central, to social organization and social dynamics. These were caste and class. Historically, the Vedic Varna system, which was a class order, had been transformed into a caste order subsequently, and in modern India the nascent class order was continually and complexly distorted and defeated by caste order. This is the point of his challenge to Marxists when he asked them whether the Indian proletariat, caste-fragmented, can ever become a class in itself, let alone a class for itself. He explained with diligence that the formation of caste society, coupled with gender inequity is to safeguard the interests of the Brahminical groups in relation to other groups, maintain their moral and mental control over them, and preserve their position of power, prestige and privilege

Dr. Ambedkar said that the major discriminatory of features of casteism are;

  • Hierarchy
  • Lack of social efficiency
  • Social immobility
  • Responsible for disruptive tendencies
  • Excommunication
  • Endogamy and
  • Anti social sprit.

Denial of Existential Dignity

Ambedkar explained that the Brahaminical system denies the right to existential dignity to the Bahujans and relegates them a subhuman existence[5]. As a consequence, they are denied three essential rights, viz., their right to Identity. All the identities that are attached to the Bahujans are not given by themselves, but are called by others. The identities like Anarya, Pisacha, Sudra, Atisudra, names of individual castes and even the surnames-all are insulting, demeaning identities and are the identities of suppression. The Bahujans are denied the right to Choice of Occupation and are forced to take up polluting occupations as hereditary occupations. “There are many occupations in India which on account of the fact that they are regarded as degraded by the Hindus provoke those who are engaged in it to aversion… all are slaves of the caste system. But all slaves are not equal in status”[6]. They are forbidden to exercise any right to Access or Claim over Resources of the society in which they live. On the whole, the caste system clamps social oppression, economic exploitation and political suppression which are worse than slavery[7].

The Necessity of Social Transformation:

In India, he analyses that there is no society at all. We have multitudes of societies based on caste. People are not born as humans. They are born into castes and imbibe such notions of mind which do not allow humane interaction among them. “The first and foremost thing that must be recognized is that Hindu Society is a myth… In every Hindu the consciousness that exists is the consciousness of caste. That is the reason why the Hindus cannot be said to form a society or a nation”[8]. He explains the ethnocentric belief that the Hindu Social System has been perfected for all times has prevented the reconstruction of the Hindu Society and stood in the way of a revision of vested rights for the common good[9]. He squarely blames “Brahmanism in instituting caste system has put the greatest impediment against the growth of nationalism”[10].

“Unless the social order is changed, no progress could be achieved. The community cannot be mobilized either for defense or for offence. Nothing can be built on the foundations of caste. No nation, no morality”.

Dr. Ambedkar’s philosophy of social and economic justice:

Dr. Ambedkar’s philosophy of social and economic justice is based on the principles of social democracy and state socialism which were meant to remove social and economic inequality in India respectively.

Social Democracy

Dr. Ambedkar’s principle of social democracy consist three concepts of justice namely equality, liberty and fraternity. These principles of equality, liberty and fraternity should not be treated as separated items in a trinity. They form a union of trinity in the sense that to divorce one from the other is to defeat the very purpose of democracy[11]. He said that political democracy cannot last unless there lies at the base of it social democracy.

State Socialism

Dr. Ambedkar advocated the concept of state socialism in states and minorities. His concept of state socialism is different from the concept of Marxist socialism. Marx says that all working class unite against capitalist and wage war against capitalist. As in one side capitalists are few in number and on the other side there is large army of working class, at the end capitalist will be eliminated in bloody revolution and new social order- socialism will be established under the leadership of working class, in which there will be no exploitation of working class.

Dr. Ambedkar’s state socialism is not based on bloody revolution. He believed that bringing socialism is the duty and responsibility of state. State shall provide protection against economic exploitation and shall work towards making egalitarian society. He sees an extremely important role for the state in transformation of agriculture and advocates the nationalization of land and the leasing out of land to groups of cultivators, who are to be encouraged to form cooperatives in order to promote agriculture.

New economic reforms and dilution of the role of state:

Dr. Ambedkar had given whole responsibility to state to do social justice with oppressed communities. But our experiences shows that state was failed to fulfill its responsibility. Consequently, India is facing many internal problems such as growing caste tensions, clashes and Naxalism in all the states. One reason of failure of government to perform its constitutional duty to provide social justice to oppressed communities may be the monopoly of upper castes in politics.

Failure of state and options to provide social justice to oppressed communities: In India there is struggle between Upper and lower castes and this struggle have a long history. Whatever Dr. Ambedkar did for oppressed communities, for that he faced stiff opposition from caste Hindus in the parliament and outside the parliament too. When he shouldered whole responsibility of social justice on state he has no option left with him, as he was single well educated person in his community. At present because of Ambedkar’s struggle SC/ST/OBC/Minorities who are most oppressed and exploited communities in India have more than 50 lakh students and about lakh of teachers in higher education across the country. Moreover they have constitutional rules in their favour against any type of injustice done against them. If teachers and students work towards educating the common masses of the country belonging to oppressed communities about their rights and constitutional rules then favourable environment can be created for the enforcement of constitutional rules including fundamental rights.

Dr. Ambedkar has rightly said that rights cannot be protected by law but the social and moral conscience of society. If the fundamental rights are opposed by the community, no law, no parliament, no judiciary can guarantee them in the real sense of the word[12].

Teaching community especially from oppressed and backward communities must fulfill their social responsibility of awakening the oppressed communities about their history of struggle and their history of backwardness in this country. If teaching community will not fulfill their responsibility given the condition that there is no hope from the government in present era of globalization then it will result in intense social/caste tensions and clashes as Dr. Ambedkar had warned.

Idea of Social Justice

Dr. Ambedkar’s notion of social justice is based on equal rights and human dignity through legal framework. As the result of his thought, Indian constitution grantees equal right to all. The term social justice implies a political and cultural balance of the diverse interests in society. Pluralism or democracy is the only means by which is indeed a dynamic process because human societies have higher goals to attain. Social justice is an integral part of the society. Social injustice cannot be tolerated for a long period and can damage society through revolts. Therefore the deprived class should be made capable live with dignity. Social justice is a principle that lays down the foundation of a society based on equality, liberty and fraternity.

The basic aim and objective of society is the growth of individual and development of his personality. The concept of social justice is a revolutionary concept which provides meaning and significance to life and makes the rule of law dynamic. When Indian society seeks to meet the challenge of socio-economic inequality by its legislation and with the assistance of the rule of law, it seeks to achieve economic justice without any violent conflict.

The ideal of a welfare state postulates unceasing pursuit of the doctrine of social justice. That is the significance and importance of the concept of social justice in the Indian context of today. Social justice is not a blind concept. It seeks to do justice to all the citizen of the state.

Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar had very explicitly stated the conditions which are very much necessary for the successful working of democracy.

  • Equality

For the success of democracy the first and foremost necessary element is equality. He stated that there must be no glaring inequalities in the society. There should not be an “Oppressed Class” and there should not be a “Suppressed Class”.

The entire Indian society was divided in caste system which was based on negation of human value’s and glared inequalities in society.

Dr. Ambedkar explained the evil effects of caste system as follows.

“Caste has killed public spirit. Caste has destroyed the sense of public charity. Caste has made public opinion impossible. A Hindu’s public in his caste. His responsibility is only t o his caste. His loyalty is restricted only to his caste. Virtue has become caste-ridden and morality has become caste bound. There is no sympathy to the deserving. There is no charity to the needy.[13]

Thus Dr. Ambedkar said that caste was the root of undemocratic system and it was hurdle in success of Democracy. His idea of Democracy was based on principle of equality. According to him, “where equality is denied everything else may be taken to be denied”.[14]

  • Two party system

The second important condition for the successful working of democracy is the existence of strong opposition to the ruling majority.[15] In Kingship there was no Veto Power in hands of people but in Democracy there is Veto power in hands of people. To avoid dictatorship and fascist tendency it is necessary in democracy to have two political party system, one for ruling and other for opposition, to have counter check on ruling party.

  • Equality in Law and Administration

There must be not only equality before Law, but there must be equality of treatment in administration. Discrimination in administration cause atrocity on Untouchables and depressed classes in India. Therefore Dr. Ambedkar wanted equality in Law and Administration as one of the condition for success of Democracy.

  • Constitutional Morality

Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar said that, “A Constitution which contains legal provisions, is only skeleton. The flesh of the skeleton is to be found in what we call constitutional morality.”[16] According to Dr. Ambedkar Constitution is important for success of democracy but more important was constitutional morality in polity and society.

  • No Tyranny of Majority

Dr. Ambedkar said, “The minority must always feel safe that although the majority is carrying on the Government, the minority is not being hurt.”[17] The reason behind Dr. Ambedkar’s this thought is that there is always clash between majority and minority for superiority. Which leads to undemocratic situation in society.

  • Moral order

Dr. Ambedkar said, “A politician dose not merely trade in politics, but he also represents a particular faith covering both the method as well as the metaphysics of politics.” He further said that, “Politics has become a kind of sewage system intolerably, unsavory and insanitary. To become a politician is like going to work in drain. According to Dr. Ambedkar Politics is the key of all emancipation. Therefore he asked depressed classes to capture political power. For realization of Social democracy in true spirit. His emphasis for moral order in Politics just because he wanted Democracy to be implemented in true sense.

  • Public Conscience

According to Dr. Ambedkar Public Conscience means, “Conscience which becomes agitated at every wrong, no matter who is the sufferer; and it means that everybody whether he suffers that particular wrong or not is prepared to join him in order to get him relieved.”

Dr. Ambedkar considered the condition but public conscience as essential condition for successful working of democracy because without public conscience democracy cannot be successful. It is the will of the people that makes healthy democratic atmosphere.

Dr. Ambedkar took decision for conservation to Buddha because of given factors are:

  • The rational consciousness of assessing things for a better life of human beings
  • The freedom of choice in which man realize his individual dignity
  • The realization of the higher life by transcending the lower plane of human existence
  • The revolt against suppression and enslavement of humanity
  • The entire change of traditional pattern of society for providing physical facilities for all
  • The emancipation of ignored humanity and the revitalization of overlooked reality.


The social inclusion policy in India has been the outcome of several sociopolitical movements culminating in the Constitution, in which democratic foundations have been envisaged for establishing an integrative society with one man- one value. The policies centered on providing the right to equality and equity to all citizens through redistribution. Responsibility to realize this social policy rested with the State and the State remained the only institution with the capacity to side- step disempowering market and customary social relations. Several studies indicate the fact that in practice, the state to a large extent, not only failed to address the problems of poverty, exclusion and social injustice, but also actively served to reinforce them.

After opening up of public superintendence over the national resources in the name of Liberalization, Privitization and Globalization, conditions turned too favourable for the entrenched castes to transform Cultural Capital into financial capital (Brahmin control over economy). Vast tracts of land are being handed over to private individuals (SEZ), unbridled opportunities to establish profit-oriented enterprises, licensing educational mafia(The Right to Education Act legitimizes all schools, public and private, and by law legalizes inequal education) aided by the misinterpretations of the Statues; unchecked religious fundamentalism-all together resulted in the strengthening of Brahamnism and Capitalism which were declared by Ambedkar as the twin enemies to the society as a whole.

In the pretext of development, the reins of economy are given to the individuals who have been already in possession of all kinds of capital, including Cultural Capital. But Ambedkar warned “It is not enough to keep development as the goal for India…it (development) should be at the socially desirable level”. Globalization, based on the philosophy of libertarianism has produced inequalities not only in income and wealth but also inequalities in education and knowledge, leading to inequalities in human capital and technologies.

Since 1991, the ‘Growth with a human face’ facilitated-Growth without Development, Jobless growth, India’s 75.6% daily income is less than 2$ and 41.6% $1.25 a day, much below compared to the Rs.60/- per day in NREGS, Hunger Deaths and Suicides, 57% of males and 62% females in Rural areas are “self – employed” – a strange term; Cut down subsides on Food (0.99% of GDP in 2002-03 to 0.66% of GDP in 2005-06) but bring up food security Bill!!!

One finds state disowning its responsibilities but talk about Corporate Social Responsibility. It is important to note that whatever the claims made for its efficiency and effectiveness, the so called private sector in India, which is in the hands of a few privileged castes, has never been renowned for its adherence to such collective goals as equity, social justice or social inclusion. If this situation is not corrected henceforth, as Dr. Ambedkar warned, will lead to the economic pauperization of the majority. In the light of Ambedkar’s economic analyses, Globalization is only a process but the crucial problem is that a Conscious and determined minority creating conditions in their favour, over an amorphous and ignorant majority. This continues unabated even in the Post Globalization period also unless one heeds to the warnings of Babasahab.

‘Democratic Deficit’

India today is in a situation which the Political Scientists refer to as ‘Democratic Deficit’ wherein “the failure of an elected government to fulfill the promises to the electorate”. This type of democracy can also be understood as a compromise between the ‘power of the vote’ and the ‘power of business’, with the governments negotiating the interface between the two. It is too well known that the ‘corporate welfare’ always wins out over ‘social welfare’ when economy gets tight.

Today Democratic Revolution is a label much used by many and particularly Marxists of all shades! The Communist Party India (M) declares its goal is to run People’s Democratic Revolution while for CPI, it is National Democratic Revolution where as the Maoists aim to engage in New Democratic Revolution. On the other hand it is a Humanitarian Revolution that Dr. Ambedkar envisaged. “All the same we must not forget the vast difference that separates a revolution from real social change”[18]. A revolution transfer political power from one party to another but what we require is a real social change in the relative strength of the forces operating in society.’


Hence, it is the responsibility of the civil society especially the educated sections to create social and moral consciousness and build a humane society. In an important way, Dr.Ambedkar thus gave expression to an inner need in India for a just social condition; on such basis alone can National well-being be secured. Though mindful of the great obstacles to the establishment of democratic arrangement in Indian society,


Discrimination is a culprit of the spirit of socialism. His main aim was to destroy all kinds of social discriminations. As a socialist, he advocated abolition of all kinds of social discriminations. According to Dr. Ambedkar, the present social system, economic system, political structures and moral conditions are not suitable to establish a socialist society. It is essential to radical changes in all spheres of society. The caste system of society is harmful for socialism. The caste system divides the society into four classes which is based on injustice. Therefore, various castes and sub-castes should be abolished. Immorality and inequality are harmful to establishing a socialist state. To establish a state control society based on morality, justice, peace, liberty, equality and fraternity, it is needed to apply all kinds of principles of equality in all fields i.e. economic, social, political and religious.


  • Ambedkar B.R., State and Minorities, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Writings and Speeches, Education Department, Government of Maharashtra, compiled Vasant Moon, 1, 392-393 (1979)
  • Narake Hari., M.L. Kasare, N.G. Kamble, Ashoke Godghate (ed), Dr. B.R. Ambedkar and His Egalitarian Revolution, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Writings and Speeches, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Source Material Publication Committee, Government of Maharashtra, Part Three, 17, 475 (2003)
  • Ambedkar B.R., Annihilation of Caste, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Writings and Speeches, Education Department, Government of Maharashtra, compiled Vasant Moon, 1, 68-69 (1979)
  • Ambedkar B.R., State and Minorities, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Writings and Speeches, Education Department, Government of Maharashtra, compiled Vasant Moon, 1, 402 (1979)
  • Ambedkar B.R., Philosophy of Hinduism, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Writings and Speeches, compiled by Vasant Moon, Higher Education Department, Government of Maharashtra, 3, 44 (1987)
  • D.R. Jatava, (1997): Social Philosophy of B.R.Ambedkar, Rawat Publication, New Delhi.
  • Gopal Guru (1998): ‚Understanding Ambedkar’s Construction of National Movement”, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 33, No. 4, January 24-30, pp. 156-157.
  • Gopal Guru (2002): ‚Ambedkar’s Idea of Social Justice‛ in Ghanshyam Shah (ed), Dalits and the State, Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi.
  • Jadhav Narendra (1991): ‚Neglected Economic Thought of Babasaheb Ambedkar‛, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 26, No. 15, April. 13, pp. 980-982.
  • K.S. Kazeha, (1998): ‚B.R.Ambedkar; the Architect of the Constitution‛, in Shymlal & Sazena K.S. (ed), Ambedkar and National Building, Rawat Publication, Jaipur.
  • P. Mohan Larbeer (2003): Ambedkar on Religion: A Liberative Perspective, ISPCK. Delhi.
  • P.P. Vijayan, (2006): Reservation Policy and Judicial Activism, Kalpaz Publication, New Delhi.


  1. Kshirsagar Ramchandra Kamaji, Political thought of Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, Intellectual publishing house, New Delhi, 1992, p.53.
  2. Singh Raghubir : Dr. Ambedkar and Dalit Chetna, Publisher, Kamna Prakashan ,C=19, DDA Flats , Loni Road, Delhi – 110093 , Page No. 69
  3. Gaba, O.P : Samkalin Rajanitik Sidhanta , Publisher, National Publishing House , 2/35 Ansari Road , Daryaganj , Delhi 110002, Page No. 251
  4. Singh Ramgopal : Dr. Ambedkar Ka Vichar Darshan, Publisher, Madhya Pradesh Hindi Granth Academy, Ravindranath Thakur Marg, Banganga Bhopal (M P ) – 462003, Page No. 222
  5. (Satyapal, 2010)
  6. (Ambedkar, 1936:31)
  7. (Ambedkar, 1917)
  8. (BAWS Vol.1pp.51)
  9. (BAWS Vol.1pp.269-70)
  10. (BAWS Vol.3pp.304)
  11. (Larbeer, 2003)
  12. (Larbeer: 2003)
  13. Shashi S.S. (Dr.) (Editor), Ambedkar and social justice, volume I, Director, Publications division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India, New India, 1992, p.162.
  14. Moon Vasant (ED), Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar writings and speeches, Vol III , Ambedkar B.R. Philosophy of Hinduism, p.66.
  15. Kshirsagar Ramchandra Kamaji, Political thought of Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar , Op. Cit, p.57.
  16. Kshirsagar Ramchandra Kamaji, Political thought of Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar , Op. Cit,p.59.
  17. ibid, p.60.
  18. (BAWS Vol.17.3pp.53)

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